Behavior that is compatible with cultural expectations is referred to as gender-normative; behaviors that are viewed as incompatible with these expectations constitute gender non-conformity.
refers to “one’s sense of oneself as male, female, or transgender” (American Psychological Association, 2006).
When one’s gender identity and biological sex are not congruent, the individual may identify as transsexual or as another transgender category (cf. refers to the “…way in which a person acts to communicate gender within a given culture; for example, in terms of clothing, communication patterns and interests.
A person’s gender expression may or may not be consistent with socially prescribed gender roles, and may or may not reflect his or her gender identity” (American Psychological Association, 2008, p. refers to the sex of those to whom one is sexually and romantically attracted.
The guidelines are also compatible with policies of other major mental health organizations (cf.
American Psychiatric Association, 1974; American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, 1991; American Counseling Association, 1996; Canadian Psychological Association, 1995; National Association of Social Workers, 1996) which state that homosexuality and bisexuality are not mental illnesses.
These guidelines build upon APA’s Ethics Code (APA, 2002b) and are consistent with pre-existing APA policy pertaining to lesbian, gay, and bisexual issues.
These policies include, but are not limited to, the resolution entitled (APA, 2009a).
These guidelines were developed collaboratively by Division 44 / Committee on Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity(CSOGD).
The guidelines revision process was funded by Division 44 and by the APA Board of Directors.
There are a number of indicators of biological sex, including sex chromosomes, gonads, internal reproductive organs, and external genitalia.