On this point as on many others, culinary art owes much to Careme...." ---The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery, A. And contrary to what you might think at first, just about as many are from cold lands as from the tropics or sun countries.
Escoffier, first translation of Le Guide Culinaire  by H. Russia makes a meaty hot borsch, but their chilled beet borsch is much more popular and more of a classic.
Canned and dehydrated soups were available in the 19th century.
These supplied the military, covered wagon trains, cowboy chuck wagons, and the home pantry.
Advances in science also permitted the adjustment of nutrients to fit specific dietary needs (low salt, high fiber, etc.).
"Cereals, roasted to make them digestible and then ground and moistened or diluted with water to make a paste, either thick or thin, did not become gruel or porridge until people had the idea and means of cooking them.
41-42) [NOTE: This book offers recipes for Bloody Mary Soup, Jellied Cucumber Soup, Snappy Jellied Madrilene, Jellied Mushroom Consomme, Consome Imperial, Belmar Hotel's Gazpacho [Mazatalan, Mexico], Gazpacho Grenada, Hungarian Tomato Soup, Lobster Buttermilk Bisque, Buttermilk Borsch, Iranian Cucumber Mast, Watercress Yogurt Soup, Avocado Madrilene, Vichyssoise Glacee, One-Of-Each Singhalese, Cubumber Taerragon Soup, Coconut Curry Soup, Coconut Milk, Latin Pumpkin Soup, Iced Avocado, Shrmip Cucumber Bisque, Iced Avocado Clam Soup, Cold Crab Soup, Pink Strawberry Soup [recipe for the Rainbow Room, NYC Rockefeller Center], Blueberry Wine Soup, & Peaches 'N' Cream Soup.
Happy to scan/share recipes.] "With the first breath of really warm weather, the cook starts thinking about new and wonderful cold soups.
The refereshing chill and tang of these as a first course or as a 'starter' is a wonderful nudge to one's appetite. The beading of moisture that usually forms on the cups adds to the illusion of coolness.
The main thing to remember is that cold soup must be really cold, just as hot soup must be really hot, to be good. A quick way to get soup very cold is to pour it into the ice tray of the refrigerator.
The Danes dote on chilled buttermilk soups, and all Scandinavians and Finns as well enjoy their cold fruit soups as a first course or dessert.