Strata Thickness- In the late 1800s, a British geologist estimated that 75 million years has lapsed since the beginning of the Cambrian.
When oil burns, carbon is released in the reaction, forming a sooty covering on the inside of the lamp. Lampblack was also often mixed with olive oil or balsam gum to make ink.
And ancient Egyptians sometimes used lampblack as eyeliner.
When this happens in a mineral, the two departing nuclei leave behind a trail of destruction in the crystal lattice. Fission track dating is ideal for samples from recent times back to 100,000,000 years.
Beyond 100,000,000 years, the density of the tracks becomes so great (saturated) that they cannot be counted reliably.
Lyell's extreme form of uniformitarianism would have required a perfect balance between heat production and heat loss.
Kelvin argued that this was physically impossible (the concept is akin to a perpetual motion machine).
Carbon-14 has a relatively short half life of 5,730 years. Beyond 60,000 - 80,000 years, there is too little Carbon-14 left in the sample and this technique cannot be used.
U nuclei undergo fission and the nucleus splits to form two smaller but very energetic nuclei that move away from each other.
More than ten million compounds of carbon are known.