These changes improved the quality of life and precipitated population growth and economic prosperity.
In the late 15th century, however, the EAC became embroiled in a long- standing conflict between Christendom and Islam, represented by the Portuguese and Omani Arab mercantile interests, and a rivalry for control of Indian Ocean commerce that led to the economic crippling of East Africa.
Adult webcam chatt - A researcher who uses carbon dating on ancient items
Kusimba has carried out archaeological, ethnohistorical, and historical research on the Kenyan coast since 1986.
Although his research is centered at the ancient port city of Mtwapa his overall goal is to delineate the archaeology of the coastal region and especially the role of trade, technology in shaping urban cultures that emerged in the region. Kusimba’s initial interest in coastal East Africa was to study the role of technology in the development of urbanism.
The elite managed and financed a complex and extensive interregional trade network.
They also patronized specialized craft specialists, including ironworkers, coral miners, mangrove cutters, and sailors.
Five decades of archaeological study documents the long-term processes of urbanization and origins of complex society in Eastern and Southeastern Africa.
Archaeologists and historians have accumulated enormous data on the development of urbanism in the region.Early second millennium scholars, including Al Biruni in the 11th century and Al Tarsusi in the 12th century discuss the widespread use of the crucible steel process in the Islamic world, which included the East African coast.The Swahili coast is known to have exported iron in quantity to India, as stated by Al Masudi and Al Idrisi. Kusimba is convinced that the availability of fuel, ore, and skill made iron relatively inexpensive for African ironworkers to make, use, and take advantage of fuel shortage in Arabia and India to corner the market.They often monopolized ownership of the most productive land, which they then leased out to commoners, newcomers, and enslaved persons.They may also have financed specialized hunters in the hinterland to provide the bulk of the export trade goods from East Africa, including ivory, skins, rock crystal, slaves, and rhinoceros horns.Economic and social interaction among diverse groups who made their living from hunting, herding, farming, and iron working laid the foundation from which international trade exchange systems interlocked.